Given Engender Equality’s specialisation in working with women and families who have experienced family violence, this submission is primarily focused on their specific experiences. People who have experienced abuse are often significantly disempowered, and may not be able to identify the impact of bullying behaviour as it generally occurs alongside other forms of domestic abuse. Furthermore, for family violence victims who are required to engage in court processes, intimate partner bullying may be difficult to distinguish from an otherwise formal, authorative and alienating process.